As the popular wisdom says from prison and from a fate do not say no to a fate. The book is a must-read for everyone.
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As the popular wisdom says from prison and from a fate do not say no to a fate. The book is a must-read for everyone.
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This article describes only some of the pros and cons of the new era, an era that most people do not notice or pretend not to notice. Whether to accept the New World or not is up to YOU to decide!
A little morality.
Already today, millions of the wealthiest and most entrepreneurial people make the most of what a particular country has to offer. When a state is able to offer optimal living and business conditions, when you feel comfortable and prosperous under its protectorate, you stay in the country of your choice. When your state becomes too demanding or too nosy on your affairs or, even worse, on your personal life you leave. Economic opportunities, financial privacy, taxes, extradition treaties (extradition to another state of its citizens), social values, military obligations, passport quotation in other countries, government stability, level of medical care, respect for private property rights, personal security and freedom of movement all need to be taken into account when choosing legal residence and citizenship.
Your passport and country of residence should not be the cross for which you were born and doomed to carry all your life. No government can be trusted to control your money. It will not take your interests to heart.
A passport can be considered a piece of paper, a paper that is very important and meaningful, but not endowed with any hidden sacramental meaning. A passport is not an expression of patriotism. Your devotion to the motherland is in no way connected with this little book in a cardboard cover (I love my motherland, and the state…)
You probably realize that the lion’s share of laws and wars in the name of national interest go against the interests of the majority of the population. Military conscription, acts governing marriage, morality and sex, financial and investment restrictions are all bureaucratic clutter. The state, represented by its least pleasant part of the bureaucracy, dictates that you go against its interests in the name of “noble causes”! At the same time, this bureaucracy does not abide by most of the laws it has issued itself.
As a way out of this situation is a special way of life and the legal status of a particular person, the name of which can be formulated as Citizen of the World.
Unrestricted, tax-exempt wealth, and hence power, the ability to dispose of one’s means unhindered is the main advantage of being a Citizen of the World. A World Citizen can work and fully profit without taxation and without various deductions. Until you become one, the range of opportunities you are denied is much wider than what you actually have now.
In order to implement the concept of a World Citizen you need to get your papers and documents in order so that all governments, all bureaucracies of all countries would consider you just a tourist, a passerby in their country. And what can you take from a tourist? He is not subject to any taxes or lawsuits. A citizen of the world divides his life into five aspects. Let’s call them flags.
Flag 1. Passport and Nationality These should be from a country that has no interest in its citizens living and working outside its borders. The passport must be available to foreigners. Dual or multiple citizenship is one of the cornerstones of your security. You should aim to obtain multiple passports and residence permits regardless of your original citizenship. A second passport always comes in handy, it has often saved people’s lives in times of war, persecution and political upheaval.
Flag 2. Business base These are the places where you make money. They should not coincide with where you officially reside, i.e., a personal financial or legal address. They should be places where rents are minimal, interest-free loans are given, or tax deferrals are given in your business area without too much oversight. Good networking opportunities, a labour or materials market are also important. London, Tokyo and New York, for example, are most suitable for finance and insurance. Zurich, Milan, Singapore and Frankfurt are also not bad.
Flag 3. Residence and registered office This should be primarily a tax haven with good communication systems. A place where wealthy, enterprising people can create, live, relax, prosper and enjoy; preferably with bank deposit privacy and no threat of war or revolution. Equally recommended are Monaco, the Channel Islands, Andorra, Bermuda and the Bahamas.
Flag 4: Funds Management These should be locations from which assets, securities, and commercial affairs can be managed by proxy. The requirements are highly qualified financial managers, confidentiality of bank deposits and no taxation of non-resident or non-citizens. One of the best places to plant the fourth flag is Liechtenstein. Austria, Luxembourg, Switzerland, New York and London would be suitable.
Flag 5. Playgrounds These are the places where you yourself actually spend your time. Quality of life is the main criterion here. Usually two to four playgrounds are required because of legal restrictions on an individual’s length of stay before being counted as a tax-deductible permanent resident, although other conditions can be achieved if you want to spend all your time in one place. Be that as it may, in most cases you should not spend more than 90 days per year in a particular country.
MP mandate. There are exceptions to every rule. Today’s wealthy citizens of Russia have a number of advantages that allow them to disregard some “flags”. It all depends on the type of your activity that allows you to protect yourself from the negative impact of the state. The most common type of such impact is the possibility of bringing to various kinds of responsibility (administrative, criminal). Russian legislation enshrines special administrative-legal statuses for certain categories of citizens (judges, prosecutors, deputies, some officials). These statuses are de facto immunity, which is virtually impossible to remove. Among the above-mentioned positions the most accessible are elected positions of deputies of various levels (federal, regional). It is possible to receive such a position at any forthcoming elections, having paid a certain sum to the party dominating in your region (if from a party), or to political technologists (if single-mandate). Naturally, there is a possibility of losing, which with an appropriate approach and investment is reduced to zero.
Diplomatic passport. If a diplomatic credential will protect you inside the country, it will not save you outside it. Always, in any state, no matter how good a citizen you are, there is a possibility of getting into a situation from which, without significant losses, you cannot get out. Diplomatic immunity exists for such cases. According to the provisions of Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations adopted in 1961 by the UN (paragraphs 29-36), diplomatic representatives are not subject to arrest or detention in any form in the territory of another state. It is emphasised that the host country is obliged to show them the necessary respect and to prevent any infringement on their life, liberty and dignity. In practice, the provisions of the Vienna Convention are universally and unconditionally observed; moreover, it has become customary in most countries to emphasize the respectful attitude of the authorities and public security organs towards members of foreign diplomatic missions, their interests and needs. It would be ideal to combine the deputy mandate with diplomatic immunity of another state where you will never appear. In this case, there is double protection: if you do get deprived of your deputy’s immunity, you will still have your diplomatic immunity, with which you can freely leave the persecuting state.
There are many pitfalls, individual for each situation, so when choosing any of the listed methods, it is necessary to rely on the legal framework so as not to ultimately fall victim to your own actions.
The decision to get a new passport or immunity should be considered from purely economic positions or as a question of your survival in this world. It is not suitable for showing off. Sometimes it’s not even safe to reveal the fact of possessing such privileges. And for poncey it is more suitable citizenship of the moon
Based on the web and my own reflections. The rights to this article belong to the author. A reprint or a use of a single part for personal purposes on other resources is only permitted with the permission of the author. Copyright (C) 2006 member specially for https://ver.sc
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The user authentication subsystem is the most important component of a corporate information security system, and its importance can hardly be overestimated. The authentication subsystem confirms the identity of the information system user and therefore must be reliable and adequate, that is, it must eliminate all access granting errors.
Existing authentication methods vary in reliability, and, as a rule, the price of systems increases sharply with increasing security, which requires risk analysis and assessment of the economic feasibility of certain security measures when choosing authentication means. Recently, however, the balance of power in the efficiency of the authentication methods used is changing.
Authentication tools can be divided into three groups (factors) according to the principles used: the you know principle, which underlies password authentication methods; the you have principle, where authentication is performed using magnetic cards, tokens and other devices; and the you are principle, which uses personal characteristics of a user (fingerprint, retina structure, etc.). Strong authentication systems use 2 or more factors when authenticating users.
Today, the means of authentication of the first group (you know) are the most cost-effective, but also the least reliable. A user’s password can be spied, intercepted in a communication channel, or simply hacked. If the security policy requires the use of complex passwords, users have difficulty remembering them, and it is not uncommon to have paper sheets with passwords written on them in the most prominent place (for example, attached to the monitor).
The consequences are especially dangerous in single sign-on systems, where an employee uses a single password to authenticate and work with many corporate applications and information sources. Often, without realizing the importance of authentication, employees practice giving their own passwords to their colleagues. It is worth noting here that the authentication procedure is closely related to other information security (IS) processes, such as monitoring activities on the system, and when investigating an incident without strict user identification, it is often very difficult to determine the cause of the incident.
Strong authentication systems built on the you know and you have factor provide more opportunities for enhanced security. For example, the operation of tokens that generate one-time passwords without having a connection to the protected system is very difficult to forge, and the password itself cannot be reused.
Examples include RSA SecureID and Vasco Digipass devices. The most interesting applications for these devices are in areas such as e-commerce, including online banking, or to protect key security users (information system administrators and executives). These devices can be used to perform authentication when accessing remotely from a workplace with a low level of trust, e.g. when working at an Internet café. But this method of authentication is not without its disadvantages – for example, a token can be given along with the PIN to another user. From this point of view, more rigorous authentication is provided by means based on biometric methods, interest in which is now actively growing, not least due to the gradual reduction in their cost.
Biometric identification systems currently available or under development include access systems by fingerprint, odor, DNA, ear shape, facial geometry, facial skin temperature, keyboard handwriting, palm print, palm vein pattern, retinal structure, iris pattern, signature and voice.
This biometric technology is likely to be the most widely used in the future. The advantages of fingerprint access means are ease of use, convenience and reliability. The whole process of identification is carried out fairly quickly and does not require much effort from users. The probability of error in identifying the user is much lower in comparison with other biometric methods. In addition, the fingerprint identification device is quite compact – similar systems smaller than a deck of cards are already being produced.
Use to identify hand geometry
The method is now used in more than 8,000 organizations, including the Colombian Parliament, San Francisco International Airport, hospitals and immigration services. The benefits of palm geometry identification are comparable to fingerprint authentication in terms of reliability, although the palm print reader takes up more space. The most successful device, the Handkey, scans both the inside and the side of the hand.
The advantage of iris scanning is that the iris spot pattern is on the surface of the eye, and no special effort is required from the user – in fact, a video image of the eye can be captured from a meter away, making it possible to use such scanners in ATMs.
Identifying parameters can be scanned and coded, including in people with impaired vision but intact iris. Cataract damage to the lens of the eye, which is behind the iris, also does not affect the iris scanning process in any way.
Retinal scans are performed using low intensity infrared light directed through the pupil to the blood vessels at the back of the eye. Retinal scanners have become very common in top-secret access control systems because these authentication tools have one of the lowest rates of denial of access to registered users and a near-zero rate of mistaken access. However, an eye disease such as cataracts can adversely affect the quality of the resulting image and increase the likelihood of errors.
Identification by facial features (by facial geometry)
One of the fastest growing trends in the biometrics industry. This method is closest to how people identify each other, and that is its appeal. The development of this direction is associated with the rapid growth of multimedia video technology. However, most developers are still experiencing difficulties in achieving a high level of performance of such devices. Nevertheless, we can expect the appearance in the near future of special identification devices based on facial features in the halls of airports for protection against terrorists, etc.
Based on the data in the table, two of the most popular technologies today are biometric identification using fingerprint and iris.[/DATAENCODE
Contrary to popular belief that fingerprint scanners are not difficult to fool, it should be noted that the leading manufacturers of fingerprint scanning devices have now created a combination of hardware and software that is resistant to tampering and dummies. And for iris-based biometric identification systems, the cost of creating a dummy is comparable to the cost of total system ownership. Thus, the occurrence of errors of the second kind (i.e., granting access to an unauthorized person) is virtually eliminated.
Of course, there are also problems. Under the influence of some factors, the biological features by which a person is identified can change. For example, deformation of the papillary pattern during cuts and burns is possible. That is why the frequency of errors of the first kind (denial of access to a person who has the right to it) when using one-factor identification in biometric systems is rather high. The solution to this problem is the use of multi-factor authentication systems that identify an individual by several factors at once, such as fingerprint, palm geometry and palm vein pattern.
In this case, the probability of first-order errors is dramatically reduced, and the overall degree of system reliability increases in proportion to the number of factors used. As a factor accelerating the development of biometric means of authentication, it is necessary to note a significant reduction in the cost of scanning devices. For instance, the cost of some fingerprint scanners has already come down to $50. This fact suggests that in the near future the cost of fingerprint scanners will be commensurate (if not less) with the cost of tokens.
Considering the market for biometric identification systems, three main directions of their use can be distinguished: civil identification systems, access control and management systems, and timekeeping systems. Today, analysts predict a serious development of all three areas and, in particular, of civil identification systems due to the start of the Russian Biometric Passport project in Kaliningrad and Kaliningrad Region. This gave a strong impulse for the development of biometric industry in Russia – the cost of devices is going down, reliability is increasing, and the level of maturity in society necessary for mass acceptance of the technology is rising. As for the global biometric identification market, analysts predict its growth to $4 billion in 2007
The development of biometric identification market and cheaper technologies will allow to use these tools in companies’ information security solutions as well as in corporate timekeeping systems (especially to control business processes that require strict personalization and personal responsibility).
Thus, we can confidently state (as our own experience in building integrated security systems confirms) that biometric identification as such will become the basis for the future enterprise information security infrastructure and will also be used in many application solutions.
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I hope somebody from beginners will be useful as in due time was useful to me Original was taken from the archive of the old Planet. (Unfortunately, the author does not have me Hope he does not mind)
Access Provider: A company that provides Internet access services to its customers. A user usually connects to an Internet Provider’s server by modem, using a telephone dialer.
Acquirer: A member of a credit card company, such as Visa or MasterCard, who receives transaction data from IT and/or the Payment System and transmits that information to the issuing bank through closed financial channels.
Acquiring Bank: An authorized bank (member of the payment system) that performs initial processing of transactions and undertakes the full range of card transactions with merchants that are within its scope: transferring funds for goods and services to merchants’ current accounts, receiving, sorting and mailing receipts, distributing stop letters (list of cards whose transactions are suspended as of the transaction date)
Acquiring Processor: The processor provides credit card processing, billing, reporting and coverage services to the acquirer. Many financial institutions typically outsource such issues to a third party for more cost-effective processing of bank cards.
Address Verification Service (AVS)/Address Verification: A service provided by IT to verify the cardholder’s address. It is done to combat fraudulent mail, telephone, and Internet purchases. This service is not a guarantee that the transaction is valid.
Application Program Interface (API) –
The interface ( call agreement) through which the application program accesses the operating system and other services.
Approval is a code sent by the issuing bank to confirm that the customer’s plastic card exists, is usable and that the amount requested is within the permitted limit.
Confirmation is requested during the authorization process.
Architecture is the form and format of controlling elements of a standard transaction.
Authentication/Authentication is a security measure that uses the Data Encryption Standard (DES) to ensure that EDI transmissions and messages are not tampered with or altered.
Authorization: The process by which the availability of funds in a cardholder’s account is verified and authorization is obtained from the issuing bank to conduct transactions using the payment card. Successful authorisation means that funds have been reserved in the cardholder’s account to cover the transaction. If the authorization is not completed in a time period determined by the issuer, it is cancelled and the previously blocked amount is released from purchases.
Authorization Code – a code consisting of letters and numbers sent by the issuing bank, confirming authorization. The authorisation code must be included in the receipt issued by the merchant.
Available Credit: The difference between the cardholder’s credit limit and the existing account balance.
Average Ticket: Average size (amount) of IT transactions.
Automated Teller Machine / ATM/ An ATM is an electronic-mechanical device enabling the holder of a bank payment card to withdraw cash by entering a personal identification number (PIN/PIN).
Bank Identification Number: A unique number assigned to the issuing bank of the Visa or MasterCard system to identify the member in processing transactions. It is usually the first 3 or 6 digits of the cardholder’s credit card number, often referred to as a bin (BIN).
Bankcard/ Bank payment card is a plastic identification means by means of which the recipient of the card is provided with the possibility to perform transactions of payment for goods and services, as well as to receive cash. Identification of the recipient of the card shall be ensured by affixing to the card the card number, its expiration date, as well as the name, surname and specimen signature of the cardholder.
Issuing Bank: see Issuing Bank
Backorder is a delayed product or order resulting from out of stock.
[Backbone]Backbone is the logical core of a network. Usually refers both to the physical means of connecting computers ( e.g., fiber optic cable) and to a particular addressing and routing protocol on the network ( e.g., X.400).
Bandwith is the capacity of the telephone line to transmit data. The higher the bandwidth, the more data can be transmitted in the same time. For modems connecting to an ISP over a telephone line, this is a maximum of 56.6 Kps (kilobits per second). Bankwire Transfer: Transferring money to any bank in the Central Bank system.
Batch]A Batch is a set of transactions accumulated over a certain period of time, usually not more than one day, waiting to be settled by the acquiring merchant’s financial institution. A Batch can be completed either automatically or through a POS terminal.
Batch Close is the sending of transactions with authorization codes to the payment processor in order to transfer money to the merchant’s account.
Batch Processing is a type of data processing and transmission in which related transactions are grouped together and transmitted for processing, usually by one computer and one application.
Browser A program that allows the user to navigate the Internet. A browser allows you to view the contents of web hosts (or pages) and to navigate from one host to another. The most popular browsers (windows) are Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer.
B2B (business-to-business)- electronic commerce systems, where the subjects of sales and purchases processes are legal entities (enterprises, organizations).
B2C ( business-to-customer) are Internet commerce systems where the seller is a legal entity (company, organization) and the buyer is an individual.
Bit is a binary digit, the smallest component of information stored or transmitted by a computer.[/DATAENCODE
Bps (Bits per second) is a unit of computer processing speed.
Byte is the amount of memory required to store one character, which is usually 8 bits. A computer’s memory capacity is measured in kilobytes, with 1 kilobyte being equal to 1024 bytes.
Capture/Purchase – a decision that this transaction will be presented for payment. Such a transaction initiates the movement of funds from the issuer to the recipient and then to the merchant’s account. All transactions submitted for payment are included in the Batch and sent to the payment processor or Payment Gateway. Transactions cannot be booked if they have not been authorized and if the product/service has not been delivered/serviced to the customer.
1. The financial institution that authorizes the issuance of the card to the customer (or entity) and that is responsible for the use of the card. The issuer supervises the use of the card by the person to whom the card has been issued.
2. Any bank or organization that issues bank cards to those who request them.
3. Any entity that uses or issues a Personal Identification Number (PIN).
Cardholder/Cardholder – a natural or legal person who has opened an account with the issuer of a credit or debit card. The Cardholder has the right to initiate a payment transaction on it.
Cardholder Bank: The bank that issued the card to the cardholder. The term is commonly used to refer to the issuing bank.
Cash Advance: The amount issued by a bank teller or ATM to a cardholder based on the availability of funds or credit limit on the cardholder’s account.
Charge Per Transaction: The charge levied on any authorized transaction to cover the costs associated with completing the authorization.
Chip Card is a card also called an IC (integrated circuit card). A plastic card with a microprocessor inside that can store electronic money. Unlike credit cards, these cards allow you to spend only what is in them.
Chargeback is an amount deducted from the merchant’s account at the request of the cardholder. If the cardholder is found to be in the right, the amount of the payment plus a Chargeback fee is deducted from the merchant’s account. For tangible items, the dispute is often resolved in favor of the merchant. For non-material items, the ruling is in favor of the buyer. Frequent Chargeback customers can end up on blacklists. Chargeback is initiated by the issuer after the acquirer has completed the transaction.
Chargeback Reason Code is a two-digit number that encodes the reason for the chargeback.
Chargeback Period: The number of calendar days (counted from the transaction processing date) during which the issuer may return the transaction to the acquirer. The number of days varies from 45 to 180 days depending on the type of transaction.
Clearing/Clearing: The process of exchanging details of a financial transaction between an acquirer and an issuer to facilitate the billing of a cardholder. Part of what is called Settlement.
Clearing Bank: The bank that the credit card company member has assigned to receive daily coverage reports. The clearing bank also handles the transfer of funds and the maintenance of the clearing account. This bank may itself be a credit card company member.
Closed Financial Circuits: Closed financial circuits connect the acquiring bank, the issuing bank, and the credit card companies and enable the exchange of financial information between banks and credit card companies for the purpose of making authorizations, reservations, and coverage.
Commerce Server is a web-server connected to the payment processor that has everything you need to accept payments – a program that stores all purchases and summarizes their prices (Shopping Cart), a database, etc. Usually allows to establish a connection using one of the secure protocols, such as SSL.
Common Gateway Interface is a network standard that allows a Web server to run any program and deliver its output as text, graphics, or audio to a Web browser.[/DATAENCODE
Confirmation Letter is an email sent to the merchant by the payment processor that contains information about the Batch files submitted to the processor. It is sent regularly – every day or every week.
Cookie: A small amount of information stored on your computer by a web page you visited. This information will remind the Internet page of you the next time you visit it.
Corporate Card: A bank card issued to a company for use by company employees. The responsibility for using the card usually lies with the company and not with the employee.
Correspondent Bank: A bank that accepts deposits and provides banking services for other banks. Correspondent relationships exist between local banks as well as between banks located around the world.
CPC – (cost-per-click) – cost per click on the banner
Credit Card: A plastic card with a credit limit used for the purchase of goods and services, as well as for withdrawal of cash, for which the cardholder subsequently receives a bill from the issuer for payment of the issued credit.
Credit Limit: The maximum amount of funds a cardholder may owe to the issuer on a card account.
CTR – (click-through-ratio) is the number of clicks on a banner related to the total number of views of that banner. Usually expressed as a percentage and serves as one of the most popular ways to measure the effectiveness of advertising on a given network or site.
Data Encryption is the encryption of information sent over the Internet. Data Encryption ensures that only the intended recipient has the ability to read and understand the information being transmitted.
Database]A database is one or more large structured sets of rarely changeable data, usually associated with software, used to update and query data. A simple database may be stored in a single file containing a large number of records, each consisting of the same set of fields, where each field has a specific fixed length.
Debit: Withdrawal of funds from the customer’s card account.
Debit Card is a debit card. Unlike a credit card, the amounts spent by the customer are automatically deducted from their account. A debit card usually requires a PIN to pay.
Deposit is the moment when the seller forms (closes) a Batch file and sends the transaction for completion (Settlement). In order to reduce the percentage (Discount rate) deducted by the acquirer, Batch files must be closed once a day.
Digital Wallet is a digital wallet. A program for paying for goods using a plastic card. Before buying something, the buyer registers in the Payment Gateway, receives a name and password, and then can make a purchase on any web-site that supports this type of digital wallet.[/DATAENCODE
Dial-Up Line: A means of communication when a dial-up connection is established and terminated when the call is ended.
Direct Payment: A method of payment collection used in the ACH network especially for recurring payments and where the debtor grants permanent authorization for the debit of their account.
Discount Rate is the percentage the Acquiring Bank charges the seller for each purchase. The percentage depends on the volume of trade, the Average Ticket price, and many other factors.
Down Time: The period of time when all or part of the system or network is unavailable to the end user due to malfunction or support procedures.
EDI /Electronic Data Interchange is the most important part of e-commerce and is the exchange of business data in a standardized computer-to-computer format between trading partners. It is used by banks and other financial institutions to make payments.
E-Merchant/Internet Merchant: A company that sells goods and/or services through an Internet page.
Electronic Commerce (E-commerce)/Electronic Commerce is a type of business activity in which commercial interactions between business entities are conducted through the Global Computer Network Internet.
Electronic Mail: A system in which a computer user can exchange messages with other users (or groups of users) via a communications network.[/DATAENCODE
Enveloping is an EDI management software function that groups all documents of the same type (transaction set) and destination into electronic envelopes.
Electronic Envelope – Information in the header and at the end of the document that follows before and after the business information in an EDI transmission. Performs essentially the same functions as a normal paper envelope in a paper-based ( not electronic) business. It controls the path from sender to recipient and provides a secure and clear audit trail for the business information it contains.
Electronic Funds Transfer/EFT is an e-commerce technology that allows the transfer of funds from the bank account of one person or entity to the bank account of another person or entity. The term EFT is also used to refer to the act of using this technology.
An Electronic Mailbox is a storage location for EDI transactions, typically presented by a value-added network (VAN) to its users.
Electronic Data Capture is the use of a POS terminal to authorize and transmit transactions to a credit card processor or other IDA. The role of the POS terminal can be a special program or Payment Gateway.
Electronic Money is digital cash. It is stored electronically in computers or microprocessors. It is in the possession of the purchaser. Digital cash can be bought and kept in a special device. The amount of e-cash is reduced when the device is used to purchase goods. There are two types of devices for storing e-cash – smart cards (Prepaid Cards) or special computer programs. In case of smart cards the digital cash is stored in a microprocessor embedded in a plastic shell, to pay for the purchase the smart card is inserted in a special reader. If a program is used, the digital cash is stored as files on a hard drive and transmitted from the buyer to the seller over a computer network, such as the Internet.
Electronic Wallet – a device for operation with smart cards. It can e.g. block the card, read its balance, show several recent transactions, etc.
Ethernet is a local area network based on coaxial cable, first described by Metcalfe and Boggs of Xerox PARC in 1976. It is now recognized as an industry standard.
Extranet is a community of trading partners that exists based on a business network controlled by Internet access providers, again using Internet communication protocols and web browser technology. Extranets exist based on community control.
]Expiration Date The number imprinted on the bank card after which the card becomes invalid.
Flat rate( Bundled rate) is a fee that includes communication and transaction costs.
FEDI/Financial Electronic Data Interchange is the computer-to-computer transmission of both payment instructions and remittance details, using international messaging standards. An example is trade payments: e.g., a retailer sends a payment to a supplier as payment for several invoices.
Financial Institution: Any institution that moves, invests or lends money, operates financial instruments, or provides financial services, such as commercial banks, savings banks, and credit unions.
Firewall: A specially programmed computer that connects a local area network to the Internet and only allows certain messages to pass through for security reasons.
Front-End is what the customer sees on the merchant’s website. Front-End allows the shopper to interact with the electronic shopping cart ( Shopping Cart), the database, and to pay for purchases.
Franchise: An organization that grants a license to a group of merchants to market a company’s goods or services in a particular territory.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ): A term that refers to a list of the most frequently asked questions and answers about a company’s products and services.
Functional Group is a grouping of related sets of transactions belonging to the same class. For example, a functional group may include a purchase order, purchase order confirmation, etc.
Gateway]Gateway is an application that accepts transactions from online merchants and sends them to the financial institution’s processing system.[/DATAENCODE
Gateway Company/Payment Gateway Company: A company that provides IT financial and technical solutions to enable online credit card acceptance.
Hard Copy: The original document related to the transaction, such as a cheque, credit slip, etc.
Holdback is the portion of the funds received by the merchant from card payments that is blocked by the acquirer or other IDA to cover Chargeback and other disputed payments. After a certain period of time, the Holdback is returned to the merchant.
Host Capture – automatic generation of Batch file in payment processor or payment gateway.
Host Computer is the computer that performs the authorization and completion(s).
Home Page: The page where the user normally enters the home page and which normally contains the main links to the page content.
HTML/Hyper Text Markup Language is an SGML-based language used to create web pages on the Internet in which hypertext links, text, graphics, sound, and video are combined.
HTTP client/ HTTP client is a program that establishes HTTP connections for the purpose of sending HTTP requests. The HTTP client is usually a desktop browser such as Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer, but can also be a program that runs on a server. For example, within OVI, the NTTR client on the purchasing organization’s server establishes NTTR connections to the selling organizations’ NTTR servers to send orders.
Hyperlink]A hyperlink is text in an HTML document that indicates a link to other information on the web. To distinguish them from plain text, hyperlinks are usually bold or underlined.
Hypertext]Hypertext is a set of documents (or nodes) containing cross-references or links that, with the help of an interactive browser program, allow the reader to easily navigate from one document to another.[/DATAENCODE
Interface is a recognized and definable point of intersection between two systems.
Interchange Fee is what the acquiring bank pays to the issuing bank for each credit card transfer. This fee is part of the Discount Rate.
The Internet is a worldwide network of networks, providing communications for sending e-mail, transferring files, connecting with other computers and accessing information existing in many different forms, such as bulletin boards for people with a common interest or electronic product catalogues.
Internet cash is purchased from an issuer (a bank or credit institution) and then freely exchanged over the Internet. Internet cash is designed for small payments, both overseas and domestically. They are purchased in the local currency, and after purchase, the seller sends electronic cash to the buyer in an Internet message.
Internet Protocol/IP is a network layer for the TCP/IP protocol suite that is widely used in Ethernet networks. IP is the most efficient packet exchange protocol. It provides routing, fragmentation, and subsequent assembly of packets across the data link layer.
Internet Service Provider (ISP)/Internet Service Provider is an organization that provides access to the Internet, including email and access to the WWW. Either a modem or a dedicated line is used to communicate with an ISP.
Intranet is a private network connected together using TCP/IP technology and generally connected to external networks, including the Internet, through a firewall (a means of protection against unauthorized access).
Issuer, Issuing Bank means a financial or other institution that supplies payment cards, such as credit or debit cards. The issuer sets the credit limit of the card or account for the cardholder. The issuer is obliged to transfer money from the card account to the acquiring bank servicing the merchant. If the buyer has a credit card, the issuing bank bills the buyer after the purchase.
Imprint – reading of card parameters. It can be electronic (via POS terminal) or manual (obtaining card imprint by imprinter). Imprint is required to prove the physical presence of the card at the point of purchase.
JAVA: A computer language invented by Sun Microsystems. Because Java programs can run on any modern computer, Java is ideal for creating application programs on the Internet.
Japanese Credit Bureau (JCB)/Japan Credit Bureau: JCB Card Issuer.
Line speed – Measured in bits (information) per second (bps) or baud, it refers to the speed at which a modem can transmit data between computers.
Limited-purpose prepaid card – a card that can be used only in certain stores or only to pay for phone calls. An example is a phone card.
Local Area Network (LAN)/Local Area Network: A geographically limited data communication network with a large amount of data being transmitted. The area served by a network may consist of a single building or a group of buildings. The network may have gateways or bridges to other private or public networks and connect computers that are less than 1000 meters apart.
Loop/ Loop is a repetition of a group of segments in a transaction set.
Loop ID/loop number is a unique code that identifies a grouping of segments.
Local Review is the seller’s ability to see from his terminal or ECR the contents of the Batch file before and after completion (Settlement).
Magnetic stripe is a magnetic stripe. It is located on the reverse side of the plastic card and contains the card account information linked to the card in coded form. The magnetic stripe has two tracks. The first track stores the cardholder’s name, the second track contains the card number and expiration date.
Matching/ Matching is an accounting concept designed to prevent fraud and error, its most complete form being the Tripartite Matching, bringing the purchase order, receipt record and invoice into conformity.
MOTO Discount Rate (Mail Order/Telephone Order) is the percentage the acquirer charges on each transaction when the merchant does not have access to the card itself, knowing only its settings communicated to him via phone, fax or Internet. When the merchant does not have the card itself, the percentage (Discount rate) is usually higher.
Merchant:Merchant or any other person or firm who, under the Merchant Agreement, undertakes to accept credit and/or debit cards for payment.
Merchant Account is a special transit account opened by a merchant with a bank that allows you to accept credit card payments. By opening a Merchant Account, the bank agrees to pay the merchant for properly made purchases in exchange for withdrawals from the customers’ accounts with the issuing banks.
Merchant Account Provider (MAP) is a bank or firm where a Merchant Account can be obtained. The MAP also accepts plastic card payments. More broadly understood, the term includes any credit card transaction, such as an ISO. Merchant Agreement: A written contract between a merchant and an acquiring bank that explains the rights, obligations, and warranties of the parties in the process of accepting card payments.
Merchant Bank is the bank (Acquirer) where the Merchant Account is opened. When a buyer purchases an item, the Merchant Bank transfers money to the seller in exchange for the right to withdraw money from the buyer’s account. br
Merchant Category Code is a code that the acquiring bank assigns to the merchant. This four-digit code, sometimes called the SIC CODE, reflects the merchant’s primary line of business.
Modem: A device which converts serial digital data from a computer into a signal suitable for telephone transmission and reconverts the signal into serial digital data for the receiving computer. When data is received, the process is reversed (MODULATOR/DEMODULATOR).
Multi-Trans Mode – When the Host Computer allows multiple transactions per connection to the payment processor.
Network/ Network is a complex system of computers connected and exchanging data.
Network Layer is the third and lowest layer in the seven-layer ISO model. It defines the path of data packets from the sender to the receiver over the communication channel and is used by the transport layer. An example is the IP protocol.
OBI / Open Buying on the Internet / Open Buying on the Internet is the standard for secure, interoperable business-to-business online commerce.
An OBI order is an EDI-based data structure that reflects an official, authorized request for goods or services based on predetermined prices, terms and conditions. Sent ( within an OBI facility) from the purchasing organization to the trading partner and is generally linked to the corresponding order request. The order format is defined by the OBI order format agreement, which is based on EDI standard ASC X.12 850.
OBI order request
OBI order request is an EDI-based data structure that reflects the requisitioner’s shopping cart. Sent from the purchasing organization to the requisitioner’s organization for order processing and approval.
A online store is a Web site with shopping facilities available on an open network, such as the Internet, that offers goods and services for sale. A chain store is similar to a store or commercial enterprise that a customer must visit in order to purchase goods or services.
Order form/ Order form is an electronic form containing fields for entering all data required to place an order.
Order Shipping Set/ Order Shipping Set – typically used for direct purchases. Includes instructions on how to get the order, a shipping waybill, updated stock status, and information from the invoice.
PDF File:A method for distributing formatted documents over the Internet. You can get a special document reader called Acrobat at https://www.adobe.com
Personal Identification Number (PIN): A confidential individual number or code used by a cardholder to verify card ownership for ATM or POS transactions.[/DATAENCODE
Payment System is an aggregate of normative, contractual and information-technical means, as well as decisions of the participants (banks, institutions, companies), which regulate their relations regarding the use of bank payment card (BPC). The payment system shall unite at least two issuing banks. All APCs that belong to the same payment system must contain attributes that make it possible to identify them as belonging to the payment system.
Payment Gateway/Payment Gateway is a server on the Internet with the programs installed on it that connects a merchant’s web server with the payment processor.
Point of Sale (POS)-the place where goods are paid for and delivered. On the Internet, point of sale software allows merchants to accept transactions at their online stores and make subsequent transactions with their financial institutions.
POS Terminal is an electronic device used to authorize and make credit card payments. It can automatically read the data recorded on the magnetic stripe of the card. Card parameters can be entered manually. The POS terminal is also suitable for MOTO transactions.
Port: Usually, a port is a piece of computer hardware through which computer data is transmitted; the inputs on the back of a computer are ports.
Protocol/ Protocol is a set of rules governing the flow of information in an electronic communication system.
Processor/payment processor is a large computer center that authorizes the card and then transfers the money to the acquiring bank associated with the processor.
Public Key Cryptography is an encryption scheme that does not require a secret channel to establish secret communication. To send a secret message, only the recipient’s public key is needed, which decrypts the received message with its secret key.
Qualification/transaction reputation – depends on how card parameters are entered, how quickly the transaction is submitted for payment (Settled), on the type of business, other information. The higher the Qualification, the cheaper the transaction costs.
Real-Time EDI/Real-Time EDI is an EDI in which transaction sets are sent and received online and all transactions can be completed in a single session. Currently, most EDI transactions are still done in save-and-select or save-and-forward mode. Also known as interactive EDI.
Recurring Fees are regular, usually monthly, fees for maintaining a Merchant Account. Includes Discount Rate, Transaction Fee, Statement Fee, and Monthly Minimum.
Requisitioner is the individual placing the order.
Retrieval Request – a request to the merchant to provide documentation of a specific transaction. It comes from the bank in disputable cases, when the cardholder disputes the transaction. May lead to a chargeback.
Secure Socket Layer (SSL)-Secure Socket Layer synchronization protocol was developed by Netscape Communications Corporation to provide security for data transmitted over the Internet. It supports both server-level and client-level authentication. The SSL protocol is application independent, allowing transparent overlay of protocols such as HTTP, FTP (file transfer protocol) and Telnet. SSL is able to exchange encryption keys and also authenticate the server before a higher level application starts communicating. The SSL protocol ensures the security and integrity of the transmission channel through encryption and message identification codes.
SET (Secure Electronic Transaction)/Secure Electronic Transaction is a credit card payment security system developed by Visa, MasterCard, Microsoft and several leading banks. It is based on public key encryption of all information related to card parameters and separation of information between the parties to the transaction so that none of them has the whole information. SET includes messages for electronically purchasing goods and services, requesting payment authorization and credentials(i.e., certificates) with mandatory public keys for authentication, and other services.
1. A computer that provides services to other computers (clients) on a network. An example would be a file server that has a local disk and serves requests from remote clients to read and write files to that disk.
2. A program that provides some service to other programs (clients).Communication between the client and the server is usually by message transmission, often over a network, and some kind of protocol is used to encode client requests and server responses.
Settlement/Coverage: As the amount of the transaction passes from the merchant to the acquirer and to the issuer, each party buys and sells a sales slip. Coverage refers to the transfer of data or cash from the acquirer to the issuer during this process.
Shopping Cart Software allows a cardholder to select items from a virtual store and put them into a virtual shopping cart. Shopping Cart saves the chosen products, calculates the total sum as well as taxes and shipping charges. Shopping Cart makes sense when a visitor makes multiple purchases.
Smart Card/Chip Card: A plastic card that resembles a regular credit or debit card and contains a computer chip capable of making calculations. The chip allows a much larger amount of information to be stored than a magnetic stripe. Electronic money can be stored inside the smart card, which can be spent in a store and received at a special ATM. Widely used in France and Germany.
Submission: The process of transmitting Batches (transaction batches) for processing by mail or electronically.
Terminal Capture is a type of card payment acceptance where transaction information is stored on the merchant’s computer, which manually dials a Batch from it and then sends it for payment (Settlement) each day.
Third-Party Processing is a firm, not owned by Visa or MasterCard, hired by an acquirer or issuer to conduct authorization and payment on plastic cards.
Ticket: The alternate name for the sales receipt or its cash equivalent that appears when a credit card sale takes place.
Transaction: Any event that results in a change in the financial position of an organization in the normal course of its operations. An example of a transaction is making a purchase with a credit card.
Transaction Date]Transaction Date: The actual date when the transaction occurred. Used to record and search transactions.
Transaction Fees are a flat fee charged to the merchant for each transaction (in addition to the Discount rate). Will vary between $0.20 and $1.00.
Transaction File is a file in which payment processor puts all transactions made during the previous day. Some processors create two files – one containing only authorizations, the other containing only completed (settled) transactions.
Transaction Set/ Transaction Set is a collection of formatted data that contains the information needed by the recipient to complete a standard business transaction. In the EDI standard, a transaction set is defined as having three sections: a header, details, and a summary, and consisting of predefined groups of segments in each section.
TCP/Transmission Control Protocol is the most common transport layer protocol used in Ethernet and Internet networks. TCP is built on top of the Internet Protocol (IP), and is almost always used in conjunction with TCP/IP. It provides reliable communication, data flow control, and multichannel information transmission.
Valid Date: The number imprinted on the credit card from which the card becomes valid. The company cannot accept the credit card for payment before that date.
Web Hosting/ World Wide Web Hosting is a service which provides an Internet entry point for a commercial web site.
Web Server/Web server is software that allows an enterprise to manage its web site and populate its content.
WWW/World Wide Web is currently the fastest growing area of the Internet, allowing access to information on a given topic regardless of location. Users automatically navigate from one database of interest to another via hyperlinks. An increasing level of sophistication allows for the development of interactive multimedia tools.
The rights to this article belong to the author. Reprinting, using parts of it, etc. for personal purposes on other resources is only permitted with the author’s verbal agreement.
Copyright (C) 2004 anonymous
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There is probably no one who has not been directly or indirectly affected by computer viruses. Anti-virus companies charge a lot of money for their products which do not provide adequate protection. The question is, why bother installing anti-virus software at all?
System analysis. It is logical that in order to detect and disarm malicious code, an anti-virus program must exist. Prevention remains prevention For each type of malware respectively there are symptoms which are sometimes visible to the naked eye and sometimes invisible at all. What are the symptoms?
Since this is a computer connected to a network, the first symptom is excessively fast consumption, usually of outbound traffic. Of course, it may not be as noticeable on a gigabit link if the attack is as wide as a dialup connection, but as a rule it’s noticeable that the system slows down when opening Internet resources.
Next on the list is the inability to log in or update from the antivirus companies’ websites, CRC-error type program failures. This is due to the fact that quite a few commercial protectors support the function of checking the parity or integrity of an executable file (not only protectors, but also the developers of protections themselves), which is done to protect the program from hacking. There is no need to speak about the effectiveness of this method against crackers and reversers, but it can work perfectly well as an alarm to a virus infection. The fee for novice attackers is that when shutting down or rebooting the computer it takes a long time for any process to complete or the computer hangs on shutdown. I think about processes it is not necessary to speak, and also about a folder of autoloading, if there is something not clear or new, probably that, however about it later.
Frequent rebooting of the computer, crashing of the Internet, antivirus shutdown, unavailability of update servers, errors during antivirus update, appearance of unknown files), this is just a short list of symptoms of an infected machine. In addition to direct malicious codes there is so-called spyware, these are all kinds of keyloggers, key dumpers, browser helpers. They can be divided into two opposing camps in terms of detection method. If a keylogger attached to OS shell via dynamic library is hard to detect on-the-fly, then an (as a rule) donkey plugin should catch your eye straight away
Detection on the fly. Enough has already been said about mail worms, the algorithm is the same for all, but the method of spreading mail worms is so trivial, that if you manage to run the file from the attachment, this article won’t help anyway). To illustrate, an example from life, IRC-bot, undetectable by any antivirus (so far). The principle of propagation is quite simple, the vulnerability found in an axis. If you use your head, you may realize that the main way to get to a vulnerable machine is to challenge the ftp server on this machine. According to vulnerability statistics this is the infamous tftp.exe. The first symptom of these worms is the outgoing traffic; once on the machine, the worm starts searching for another vulnerable machine on the network, that is, it simply scans the IP address ranges. Then it’s very simple, the first thing to do is to look at the logs in the OS event log.
I.e. Control Panel Administration Event Log.
Here we are interested in notifications of running services and, more importantly, error notifications. For more than two years now worms have been asking for information about a bug in the DCOM server. Therefore any bug in the DCOM server is a good reason to think that there is a virus in the system. To be sure of the presence of the latter it is advisable to check the error report for the name and privileges of the user responsible for the error. If the user is an unspecified user or something similar, rejoice, maybe the infection was successful! Proceeding logically, the first thing to do is to close the hole in the system for future accesses and then to localize the viruses. As said before these viruses usually get in through tftp.exe, so remove it from the system. To do this, first remove it from the archive
, then from the OS upgrade folders, if any, then from
and then just from
The OS will probably say that the files are corrupted and ask for a disk with the distribution, don’t agree! Otherwise, it will restore and open the hole again. When all is behind you, you may start to localize the virus. To see which applications are using a network connection, a handy little program TCPView can help. However, some worms have a good encryption algorithm or can be attached to processes or masked to processes. The most common process to disguise itself is svhost.exe, there are even a handful of such processes in Task Manager and it is possible to create a program with the same name, making it nearly impossible to tell who is who. But there is a chance and it depends on attentiveness. Look through task manager first of all. For svhost.exe it is strangely enough M$, of course you can add false information into the virus code, but there are a couple of things here. The first and probably the main one is that a well written virus doesn’t contain any import table or data sections. Therefore, such a file has no resources and therefore cannot be written to the creator’s resources. Alternatively, it is possible to create a resource, but then there will be an excessive volume of file, which is extremely undesirable to a virtuermaker. Also it is necessary to tell about svhost.exe, it is a set of system services and each service is a running file with certain parameters.
Accordingly in the Control Panel Services Administration, contains all loaded services svhost.exe, further to count up quantity of working services and processes svhost.exe, if not converge, already all is clear (it is naturally necessary to compare with quantity of WORKING services). Perhaps among the services is a virus, it is possible to say one thing, the list of services is on MSDN and evenwhere else in the network, so that just take and compare the problem is not constitute a problem. After such actions, you can get the name of the file, which is probably a virus. For normal work of OS needs 5 files in root directory, so you can safely delete all other files, unless you don’t manage to install programs into root directory. Files for normal operation:
ntldr boot.ini pagefile.sys Bootfont.bin NTDETECT.COM
There should be nothing else. Naturally, a virus should be loaded at system startup, as a rule. Accordingly, check the following registry keys for suspicious programs:
HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindows NTCurrentVersionWinlogonNotify HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindows NTCurrentVersionWinlogonUserinit HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindows NTCurrentVersionWinlogonShell HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRun HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftActive SetupInstalled Components HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerSharedTaskSchedulerHKLM SOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionShellServiceObjectDelayLoad HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRun
Of course this will work when identifying simple worms. Identifying a good virus is difficult. However, a good backdoor, keylogger, stealth, streaming or simple worm which uses API hooks (making it really invisible) can take a long time to detect! It’s true that such creations are really scarce, there are few real virtualizers these days. Frustrating
Spyware, or as the Germans call it, SpyWare. A simple spyware often hides behind an innocent looking toolbar. Know that if you, suddenly, out of the blue, appeared a new button or a search string in your browser, consider it a signal. Also clearly visible, if you suddenly changed the start page of the browser, there is nothing to talk about. Although viruses changing the start page are not necessarily spies.
There are three most common ways in which spies locate and operate on a victim’s machine.
The first one is registry and nothing else, virus may or may not be present on the computer but it has the same purpose – it replaces the start page of the browser via registry. If the virus or script has changed the start page only once, no questions, you just need to clear this key in the registry, but if after clearing the key appears again after some time, the virus is running and is constantly making reference to the registry. If you are experienced in working with debuggers like SoftIce, it is possible to set a breakpoint to access the registry (bpx RegSetValue) and trace which program makes registry accesses besides the standard ones. Further on by logic.
The second is specifically system event hooks, or hooks. Hooks are typically used more in keyloggers, and are a library that monitors and possibly modifies system messages. Usually there is already a program itself and a library attached to it, so examining the main program module will not get anything interesting.
The third way is attaching your library to the standard operating system programs, such as explorer.exe and iexplorer.exe, simply put writing plugins for these programs. There again, there are a couple of ways, this attachment using BHO, and simply embedding their library into executable. The difference, roughly, is that the Browser Helper Object is used as a plugin for the browser, while embedding libraries is not so much a plugin as a self-sufficient program, more like a file virus of yesteryear.
Registry keys where bad products, in the form of toolbars, buttons and browser home pages, can be written.
HKEY_CURRENT_USERSoftwareMicrosoftInternet ExplorerMain parameter StartPage. HKEY_USERSS-1-5-21-1214440339-507921405-839522115- 1000SoftwareMicrosoftInternet ExplorerMain parameter StartPage
Registering objects like buttons, toolbars, etc.
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerBrowser Helper Objects
This is where all the helpers are registered and if you don’t have any, the key should be empty, if not, you have to remove it.
For a more detailed analysis, you will need some tools, such as PETools by NEOx and PEiD. Probably, having checked the registry, you will not find any changes in the status page, and also will not find plugins registration in the browser. On closer inspection will turn out that this search string (toolbar) appears in all windows of the operating system. It already changes the crux of the matter a bit. Perhaps there are two independent spies involved in the process, using the introduction of a dynamic library. Here we need to distinguish that if the toolbar was only in the browser, it means it was embedded into the iexplorer.exe process, but it is everywhere, so it was necessary to check it in explorer.exe. Launch PETools and just watch what libraries are used by the browser. If system libraries from %SYSTEMROOT% have smt.dll in their background, with path going to TEMP somewhere, then our goal is achieved. Reboot in safe mode and remove this library, all is normal, spy killed. The only thing left is to call PETools again and right click on the process and rebuild the file. This is the easiest case
Yese must find and kill the toolbar. In the same way look at explorer.exe process, nothing catchy? The toolbar seems to be lost among libraries, look closer )). How do you distinguish a real library from a fake one? As you know, quickmakers strive to minimize and encrypt code. That is not a toolbar as a rule will not lie in an open form, firstly the code can be reduced, hence the need, and secondly if someone (often not even antivirus, but a competitor) would detect this library, it is easier to understand unencrypted code. This is why we take PEiD and perform mass scanning of imported libraries. Libraries from microsoft are naturally written in visual C and are not packed, so if you can see the packed or encrypted library, 99% of it is what you’re looking for. Check it or not is very simple, move it in safe mode and see the result.
If you cannot find the packed library, use a resource editor like Restorator to check the file versions. This is the kind of thing virtualizers get screwed over.
List of system services svhost.exe (WinXP)
The rights to this article belong to the author. Reprinting, using parts of it, etc. for personal purposes on other resources is only permitted with the author’s verbal agreement.
Copyright (C) 2005 Shturmovik
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Everybody can be in a situation when you need to get rid of any information quickly and efficiently (regardless of its importance). Attached material (not all of mine, used data from other Internet resources), which can look at the problem deeper than just sticking the hard drive into the microwave, in general, turned out to be interesting. Written earlier this year.
Data destruction. A practical approach.
The rights to this article belong to the author. Reprinting, using parts of it, etc. for personal purposes on other resources is only permitted with the author’s verbal agreement.
Copyright (C) 2005 [sER]
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Browser Cache or How Your Fault Was Proven
You have probably heard more than once the stories about how law enforcement officers, having broken into the apartment of yet another failed hacker, conduct detention, invite witnesses, draw up a protocol, seal it up and take the hacker’s workstation with them for examination. Many even ridicule the competence of our staff management “K”, citing as evidence only the fact that often with a system unit police officers take away and keyboard and monitor. The answer to this is that the equipment is seized by ordinary police officers who often have little knowledge of computers, and, as a rule, in addition to taking the hacker’s computer to the department for examination, they also have a pile of unsolved cases – so there is no need to be ceremonious with any of the hardware. The Russian mentality works: “We will take everything – and they will figure it out”. About this whole process everyone has heard, but what happens next in the examination, the most “incompetent” specialist is not known to all. This article will consider one of the aspects of the expert to extract the necessary information, which later may be attached to a criminal case, and be used against the hacker in court.
At 8.25 a.m. on August 5, 2005, M. Krasnokutskiy, an employee of the design department of Volgo-Stroy, the biggest Volgograd construction company, had just finished his design of a new nine-storey building in the center of Volgograd and decided to upload all data to the information server provided by Volgo-Host. But I couldn’t – the error message read: “The free space limit has been reached. Please contact your system administrator” which Krasnokutsky did, immediately calling to D.Ivanov who worked as a system administrator at Volgo-Host. But to Krasnokutsky’s surprise, their system administrator was not there – the answering machine in his office beeped: “Gone to Turkey on vacation. Will be back in two weeks.” After an inquiry was sent to Volgo-Host about the lack of free space and later the company director was horrified to learn that their server folder of their system administrator contained over 300 GB of music, recently released movies and programs, as well as child pornography. The company was charged with illegal possession of pirated products and a criminal case was opened. The investigation was referred to one of the offices of the “N” department.
Any investigation begins with “getting to know” the suspects. In our case, the main suspect is Ivanov, Volgo-Stroy’s system administrator. The expert will have to establish his social circle, occupation and interests. Often, the initial point in the investigation is the environment where the suspect spends the majority of his time, while for us, it is the Internet itself. In examining the suspect’s Internet activity, the expert first examines the history and cache of browsers. Internet Explorer (IE) and Mozilla FireFox (FF) were installed on Ivanov’s machine. The expert decided to start the investigation with IE.
Microsofts Internet Explorer (IE)
This browser is installed by default on all windows systems. IE caches by default (saves the web pages you view to your hard drive to prevent them from being reloaded). The cache is stored for each user in a separate profile at: C:Documents and SettingsivanovLocal SettingsTemporary Internet FilesContent.IE5 Inside the directory Content.IE5 there are additional folders with “random” generated names, which stores information about visiting one or another web resource. In addition to the cache, there are two additional repositories of information about user activity. This is History, where URL and date of your visit are stored. History is stored in: C:Documents and SettingsivanovLocal SettingsHistoryHistory.IE5 Also the browser stores user-generated cookies that contain additional information. C:Documents and SettingsivanovCookies An expert examiner will check all three directories, but it’s often the cache storage that has the most valuable information. Inside the directory Content.IE5 there is the file index.dat, which contains the information we are interested in. After decoding it we will be able to look through the same pages as Ivanov. And based on that we’ll be able to get a first idea about the suspect. The index.dat file is encrypted using a special algorithm developed by Microsoft.
Mozilla FireFox (FF)
The second browser installed on Ivanov’s system was Mozilla FireFox. Like IE it also stores the information about the user’s Internet activity. It is worth to say that FF uses a special algorithm for caching pages. The directory in which the information we are interested in is directly stored: C:Documents and SettingsApplication DataMozillaFireFoxProfilesCache For both types of browsers the process of reconstruction of cached files is the main task of the expert. For this purpose, there are several programs that analyze index.dat and history.dat files and extract the maximum useful information from them. When the reconstruction of web pages is complete, the expert will begin to analyze the information he has extracted.
Reconstruction and subsequent analysis
To reconstruct cached files, you can use the Web Historian or FTK utility. The main feature of these programs is that they support the following browsers: Internet Explorer, Mozilla FireFox, Netscape, Opera and allow you to provide a report as a text file, as well as in html. Once the final report is received, the most interesting thing starts. The expert now has a difficult task to filter out of all the heap of pages and examine those that are directly related to the case.
Analysis of cache reconstruction data in IE
Analysis of cache reconstruction data in FF
Use of information obtained in further investigation
The next day, all the employees were interviewed at Volgo-Stroy’s office and, based on their answers, it was established that: Dmitry was a student who had taken a job with the company not long before Ivanov’s leave. Dmitri’s place of residence was established. When compiling his report, the investigator took into account all the information obtained from Ivanov’s computer. The analysis of his hard drive and a detailed study of cache, browser history, ICQ logs, deleted files and additional information confirmed his involvement in the crime and established his involvement in the madwarez.com group, which used the Volgo-Stroy server as a repository of illegal information. In order to gain access to which hackers had to know not only the administrator’s login and password, but also have physical access to Ivanov’s computer, since a special key file with distributed privileges located only on the administrator’s hard drive was required for authorization on the server. All the obtained information from both computers was attached to the case file. After which the sentence was read to Dimitri.
All events described in this article are fictitious. Any coincidence of names and company names is unintentional. The only task I had in writing this text was to show you that seemingly insignificant things like the cache can give investigators a foothold for further action. Nowadays, especially on the Russian segment, there’s a belief that such information can’t be used as evidence or even disclosed in court proceedings. You may be right, and the relevant law has not yet been signed into law, but I am more than sure that its time is fast approaching. While living in the USA, I had a chance to communicate with a specialist of IT crime investigation. She told me about some methods of revealing information interesting for the investigation. To my surprised question: “And that all this is evidence and can be considered in court?” Kate smiled and calmly replied, “Is it any different in your country?” The only and necessary conclusion from all of the above is that you need to take much more seriously the information that is created without your knowledge, the things that everyone is so used to, and no one questions their reliability.
Programs mentioned in the article: Cache View – https://www.progsoc.uts.edu.au/~timj/cv/dl/cview260.zip Web Historian https://software-files . download.com/8 … d=10373157 FTK – https://www.accessdata.com/Product04m?ProductNum=04
PS^ This article has only been edited by me.
Copyright (C) 2005 MorpheuS
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As practice shows, during the detection and investigation of computer crimes the investigator builds a chain of evidence: scene examination data – investigation – making inquiries – identification and apprehension of the perpetrator. At the first stage, in accordance with articles 164, 176 and 177 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Russian Federation, the scene of the incident is examined, i.e. the computer system subjected to a hacking attack. During this examination, the investigator seizes and attaches various log files, including those from firewalls, operating system and application program logs, etc. to the case. After analyzing these log files, the specialist then determines the tactics for further investigation. Depending on the specific circumstances of the case, protocol files at ISPs, hosting companies, wireline companies, and certain other locations are further obtained through seizures or even searches. From these log files, the location (and sometimes identity information such as passport details or a photograph) of the suspect is established at a minimum. The data from these log files is then presented as evidence in court proceedings.
Naturally, this state of affairs raises a question for all participants of the judicial process: how is the evidentiary value of log files attached to a criminal case ensured? In other words, are log files admissible as evidence in criminal proceedings? In the course of such discussions, the online community for the most part came to the following highly controversial conclusions:
Log files seized from the victim’s computer have no evidentiary value in the future, as they may have been previously modified by the victim or by third parties independent of the victim’s wishes. After the seizure, however, the log files may be modified by the investigator, a specialist or law enforcement operatives.
Log files obtained from ISPs have no evidentiary value in the future, because in accordance with the RF Law “On Communications” an ISP has no right to provide information about the private life of citizens to anyone without a court decision. Based on the investigator’s suspicions alone (after all, log files from the victim’s computer have no evidentiary value), courts will not make such a ruling.
The results of examination of any computers (including those seized from suspects) made by an expert have no evidentiary value, because in order to carry out such examinations, the expert must use methods certified by the Ministry of Justice and be employed by a specialized expert institution. In fact, at the moment there are no such experts on the staff of expert institutions of the Ministry of Justice (and even the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the FSB).
Special “Internet Laws” and “Internet Laws” need to be developed to suppress computer information crimes, as conventional laws cannot operate in cyberspace.
Guided by these considerations, it is easy to draw the erroneous conclusion that it is almost impossible to prove any crime in the field of computer information nowadays. And, as a result, some visitors to such forums, who do not have sufficient legal training, often commit offences themselves, after which they are prosecuted without much difficulty.
In fact, the difficulties arising in assessing the evidentiary value of log files are easily resolved within the framework of current law. As in many other aspects of our lives, theory clearly does not stand up to collision with practice. Just as the first circumnavigation of the globe proved the inconsistency of the flat earth theory, the first court session in the case of the citizen, accused under Article 272 of the Criminal Code, proved the inconsistency of home-grown legal theories. The defendant (in the city of Volgograd) received a sentence of two years of suspended imprisonment, and the practicing lawyers gained valuable experience, which was applied in the investigation of criminal cases under Articles 272 and 273 of the RF Criminal Code in various RF subjects.
For a better understanding of the following text, I will give a simple example comparing computer crime with conventional crime. Suppose that a robbery and a murder are committed. The relatives of the victim went to the police, after which the investigator removed from the corpse a bloody knife with the fingerprints of the killer. Based on the fingerprints, the murderer was identified and detained. However, in his defence he claimed that his fingerprints on the knife had been falsified by the investigator or the murdered man’s relatives and that the items stolen from the apartment had been planted on him by the police. That is, he is innocent and demands his immediate release. Such a statement is not as ridiculous as it seems. Any investigator can remember many “clients” who have told even stranger stories. In fact, it’s a sure way to get the maximum sentence under the incriminated article.
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The best thing a computer can do is to generate a pseudo-random sequence which, although it looks random, is in fact not. The period of a pseudo-random sequence must be long enough for its subsequence to be aperiodic, i.e. have a period equal to its length. For example, if you want a string of a million random bits, you should not use a sequence generator that repeats every 65536 bits to generate it.
A pseudo-random bit sequence should, if possible, not differ from a truly random one. It is necessary that the number of ones approximately coincides with the number of zeros, and half of all strips (consecutive identical sequence components) have length I. One fourth has length 2, one eighth has length 4, etc. In addition to those just listed, there are a number of other generally accepted tests that allow you to check whether a given sequence is indeed a pseudorandom sequence.
The creation of good pseudorandom sequence generators has received quite a lot of attention in mathematics. At present, it is possible to generate sequences with a period of about 2000-3000 bits. The problem is that all pseudo-random sequence generators give predictable results and correlation dependences under certain conditions. And this is exactly what cryptanalysts expect from pseudorandom sequences in order to mount an effective attack on cryptosystems where these sequences are used.
Cryptographically secure pseudorandom sequences
In cryptography, pseudorandom sequences are subject to much greater requirements than simply having certain attributes of statistical randomness. For a pseudorandom sequence to be cryptographically reliable, it must be unpredictable. This means that for a cryptographically secure pseudorandom bit sequence, it is impossible to say in advance what its next bit will be, even knowing the algorithm for generating this sequence and all its previous .bits. Like any cryptographic algorithm, a cryptographically secure pseudorandom sequence generator can be attacked and opened by a cryptanalyst. Cryptography teaches how to make such generators resistant to cryptanalytic attacks of various types.
Truly random sequences
A sequence is called no-really random if it cannot be reproduced. That means that if you run a truly random sequence generator twice with the same input, its output will be different random sequences. The main challenge is to be able to distinguish a random sequence from a non-random one. If we encrypt a character string several times with a cryptographic algorithm that complies with GOST 28147-89, we will obtain a sequence that looks like a truly random one. To prove its non-randomness, there is no other way but for the NSA to rent appropriate computing power and a tampering program. However, it is unlikely that your lease proposal will be taken seriously there.
When the sender himself chooses the key with which he encrypts his messages, his choice usually leaves much to be desired. For example, Pyotr Sergeyevich Ivanov would rather use Ivanov than 7)g* as a key. It is not because he is unwilling to observe elementary security rules. It’s just that he remembers his surname much better than abracadabra of six arbitrarily taken symbols. But even the world’s strongest encryption algorithm isn’t going to help him keep his correspondence secret, especially if the keys Ivanov uses are always the same as the names of his immediate family members and he writes down those keys on scraps of paper stuck on his computer. In a well-organized brute force attack, a qualified cryptanalyst won’t try all the keys one by one. He will first test those of them that mean anything to Ivanov. This type of brute-force attack is called a commodity attack, since during it, the adversary uses a dictionary of the most likely keys. This dictionary usually includes:
A good key is a random bit vector. For example. if its length is 56 bits, this means that its generation process can produce any of 2 56 (2 to the power of 56) possible keys with equal probability. The source of random keys is usually either a natural random generator (a good analogy of such a generator is a small child who has just learned to walk – the time intervals between its falls are completely random). Alternatively, the source of a random key can be a cryptographically robust pseudorandom bit sequence generator. Better, the key generation process should be automated. If there is no computer at hand to run a program implementing a pseudorandom generator, or your child is long out of infancy, you can toss a coin or a dice.
The use of a good random number generator is very important when generating cryptographic keys, but there should not be too much debate about which one is more random. It is more important to apply strong encryption algorithms and robust key handling procedures. If you have doubts about randomness when choosing a key, you can use one of the key generation methods described later in this chapter.
In all encryption algorithms there are so-called non-resistant keys. This means that some of the keys to the cipher are less strong than others. Therefore, when generating the keys, they have to be automatically tested for strength and new keys have to be generated to replace those that fail this test. For example, the DES algorithm has only 24 unresilient keys out of a total of 2,56 , so the probability of stumbling across a nonresilient key is negligible. Additionally, how would a cryptanalyst know that a particular message or file was encrypted using a non-persistent key? And consciously refusing to use non-persistent keys gives an adversary additional information about your encryption system, which is undesirable. On the other hand, verifying keys for non-persistence is simple enough to neglect.
Generating public keys is much more difficult than generating secret keys, since public keys must have certain mathematical properties (e.g., they must be the product of two prime numbers).
Using random keys is not always convenient. Sometimes a key needs to be stored in memory, and 36f9 67aZ f9cb d931 is not easy for a person to remember. In this case, you can use some rule that will be obvious to you but inaccessible to an outsider. Two variants of such a rule:
Compose a key from several words separated by punctuation marks. For example, keys like YankeeGo home are very easy to remember. Use as a key a combination of letters, which is an acronym for a longer word. For example, the catchy name of the German wine Liebenfraumilch allows you to generate the key Lbnfrmlch! by discarding vowels and adding an exclamation point. Password
A more attractive approach is to use a fairly long, easy-to-remember sentence in Russian, English, or another language instead of a single word, which is converted into a key. Such an expression is called a password in cryptography. Any unidirectional hash function can be used to convert a password into a pseudorandom bit key.
The password should be chosen long enough so that the resulting key is random. From information theory, we know that each letter in an English sentence contains approximately 1.3 bits of information. Then, to obtain a 64-bit key, the password should consist of about 49 letters, which corresponds to an English phrase of 10 words.
The password must be easy to recall if desired, and at the same time, it must be sufficiently unique. A quote from Kozma Prutkov, which everyone is familiar with, is unlikely to work, since his compositions are available in a form that can be reproduced on a computer and, therefore, can be used in a dictionary attack. It is better to use the work of a little-known poet or playwright, quoting him with mistakes. A greater effect can be achieved if the quote used to generate the key contains foreign words. Unpretentious swear words are ideal for this purpose – you don’t have to write them down to memorize them. Just hit yourself with a hammer and the password will automatically come to your mind. You just have to restrain yourself from saying it out loud so that strangers won’t overhear it.
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The task of protecting against software bookmarking can be considered in three fundamentally different ways:
prevent software bookmarking in the computer system; detect embedded software bookmark; remove embedded software bookmark. When considering these options, solving the problem of protection against software bookmarks is similar to solving the problem of protecting computer systems against viruses. As in the case of the antivirus problem, the task is solved with the help of means of control over integrity of the started system and application programs, and also over integrity of the information stored in computer system and critical for system functioning events. However, these tools are only effective when they themselves are not affected by software bookmarks that can:
impose the final results of control checks; influence the process of reading information and launching programs, which are controlled; change algorithms of control means functioning. At the same time, it is extremely important that the activation of the means of control is performed before the beginning of the impact of the software bookmark or when the control is performed only using the control programs that are in the ROM of the computer system.
Protection against software bookmarking
A universal means of protection against software bookmarking is to create an isolated computer. A computer is called sandboxed if the following conditions are met:
it has a BIOS system that does not contain program bookmarks; the operating system has been checked for bookmarks; the BIOS and operating system for a given session have been reliably determined to be unchanged; no programs other than those already checked for bookmarks have been or are running on the computer; the tested programs are not run in any other conditions than those listed above, that is, outside the isolated computer. To determine if a computer is isolated, a step-by-step control model can be used. First it is checked if there are no changes in BIOS. Then, if everything is OK, the disk boot sector and operating system drivers are read, which in turn are also analyzed to see if unauthorized changes have been made to them. Finally, the operating system runs a program call control driver, which ensures that only verified programs are run in the computer.
An interesting method of combating software bookmarking can be used in a banking information system where only document files circulate. In order to prevent software bookmark penetration through communication channels, no executable code is allowed to be received in this system. In order to recognize events such as REQUIRED EXECUTIVE CODE and RECEIVED FILE DOCUMENT, control is applied for the presence of prohibited characters in the file: a file is considered to contain executable code if it contains characters that never occur in file-documents.
Identifying an embedded software bookmark
Detection of embedded code is about detecting indications of its presence in a computer system. These indications can be divided into the following two classes:
qualitative and visual; detected by testing and diagnostic tools. Qualitative and visual signs include perceptions and observations of the user of the computer system, which notes certain deviations in its operation (changes in the composition and length of files, old files disappear somewhere, and new files appear instead, programs begin to work more slowly, or end their work too quickly, or at all cease to run). Although judging the presence of this class of signs seems too subjective, nevertheless they often indicate the presence of malfunctions in a computer system and, in particular, the need to carry out additional checks for the presence of software bookmarks. For example, users of encryption and digital signature package Cryptocenter since some time began to notice that the digital signature under electronic documents is put too quickly. An investigation carried out by FAPSI experts revealed the presence of a software tab that worked based on imposing file length. In another case, users of the encryption and digital signature package Krypton have sounded the alarm and noted with surprise that the encryption speed using the GOST 28147-89 cryptographic algorithm has suddenly increased by more than 30 times. And in the third case, a software bookmark revealed its presence in a keyboard input program by the fact that the affected program stopped working normally.
Signs detected by testing and diagnostic tools are characteristic of both software bookmarks and computer viruses. For example, boot bookmarks are successfully detected by anti-virus programs that signal the presence of suspicious code in the boot sector of a disk. The Disk Doctor, included in the popular Norton Utilities suite, deals well with the initiation of a static error on disks. Adinf type tools for checking disk data integrity allow successfully detecting changes made to files by program bookmarks. In addition, searching for code fragments of software bookmarks by their characteristic sequences of zeros and ones (signatures) is effective, as well as allowing only programs with known signatures to be executed.
Removing an embedded software bookmark
The specific way to remove an embedded software bookmark depends on how it is embedded in the computer system. If it is a software-hardware bookmark, then the computer’s ROM should be reprogrammed. If it is a boot, driver, application, masked, or mimic bookmark, you can replace it with an appropriate boot record, driver, utility, application, or utility program obtained from a trustworthy source. Finally, if it is an executable software module, you can try to mine its source code, remove any existing bookmarks or suspicious fragments from it, and then recompile.
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